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修辭機經提醒-比較結構

修辭考了很多比較的題,主要考的是否省略,是否倒裝,和時態。

重點如下: 比較結構優先看慣用語,as….as或more/less…than搭配有無問題,另外就 是看比較對象有沒有可比性,至於要不要補出helping verb是接下來才要判 斷問題,必須瞭解比較對象是否會ambiguous,另外注意比較對像是在比名 詞還是在比時間,比名詞走省略概念,比時間走代詞概念 關於是否倒裝這點, 簡單提出兩題參考

128. (31324-!-item-!-188;#058&004419) According to a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine, aspirin prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does.

(A) prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does

(B) prevents blood clots just as well as does a commonly used and a more expensive blood-thinning drug

(C) prevents blood clots just as well as will a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug

(D) works just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug at the prevention of blood clots

(E) works just as well as does a commonly used blood-thinning drug, which is also more expensive, at preventing blood clots

以上答案A選項, 因為修飾語在drug左邊, 所以helping verb注意擺在右邊

53. (27280-!-item-!-188;#058&003467) Britain’s economic growth was slower in the mid-1970′s and its decline much more rapid in the subsequent recession than the United States.

(A) Britain’s economic growth was slower in the mid-1970′s and its decline much more rapid in the subsequent recession than the United States.

(B) The economic growth of Britain was slower in the mid-1970′s and it declined much more rapidly in the subsequent recession than the United States did.

(C) Britain’s economy, which grew more slowly in the mid-1970′s, also had declined much more rapidly in the subsequent recession than the United States did.

(D) The economy of Britain grew more slowly in the mid-1970′s and declined much more rapidly in the subsequent recession than did the economy of the United States.

(E) Britain’s economy grew more slowly in the mid-1970′s and its decline was much more rapid during the subsequent recession than the economy of the United States.

以上答案D選項, 注意修飾語在the economy 右邊, 所以helping verb擺左邊

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修辭:not only A but also B

本月考到了not only A but also B; A/B方向要相同, 要不就是都講好處, 要不就是都講壞處, 注意此時若A/B為對比句意, 講一好一壞時, 就要用A but B 對比結構.

V1. 有道很噁心的題目,前面半句,but XXX also XXX, 前半句劃線,我看了半天兩個答案中選,一個是沒有not only,另一個是 XXX did not XXX only,太奇葩了 但是趕腳又是遞進,but不表示轉折啊,童鞋們可以再複習複習知識點。

V2. 還有2題 not only,but also,可是有一道not only,but also不太好 選因為選項裡面只有一個是這個搭配,有一個選項只有not only在裡面,沒 有接but also。

若實戰上五個選項都有not only, 直接看詞性平衡, 不需要管對比關係

140. (32197-!-item-!-188;#058&006684) By offering lower prices and a menu of personal communications options, such as caller identification and voice mail, the new telecommunications company has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them to offer competitive prices.

(A) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them

(B) has not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also forced them

(C) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced these companies

(D) not only has captured customers from other phone companies but also these companies have been forced

(E) not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also has forced them

KEY: C

但是若部分選項not only不見了, 先將有not only A but also B不平衡選項刪除, 在剩下選項看句意是否為同方向或對比

OV2-63 Many policy experts say that shifting a portion of health-benefit costs back to the workers helps to control the employer’s costs, but also helps to limit medical spending by making patients more careful consumers.

(A) helps to control the employer’s costs, but also helps

(B) helps the control of the employer’s costs, and also

(C) not only helps to control the employer’s costs, but also helps

(D) helps to control not only the employer’s costs, but

(E) not only helps to control the employer’s costs, and also helps

以上這題C/D/E都有not only先解, 刪除D/E不平衡或慣用語錯誤, B 的 helps and also to limit不平衡也刪除, 剩A/C發現兩者方向都是helps講好, 選C

GWD-8-Q20 Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also caused erosion and very quickly deforested whole regions.

A. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also

B. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast), which gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also

C. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States, creating farmland (especially in the Northeast) and giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also

D. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States created farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also

E. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States not only created farmland (especially in the Northeast), giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it

這題A/B/E都有not only先解, 刪除不平衡的A/E, C選項是fragment sentence, 剩A/C, 因為create farmland是好處, cause erosion是壞處, 所以選D表對比關係

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一般性名詞(實義名詞) vs 動作名詞(抽象名詞)

最近有同學問到平衡概念對等這個考點,通常概念對等要看句意,但是有時候我們也可以從一些簡單的方法判斷,好比說實義名詞和抽象名詞,這裏A2簡單整理相關考點如下:

➢ 一般性名詞(實義名詞) vs 動作名詞(抽象名詞)

平衡概念對等下,一般性名詞盡量與一般性名詞平衡,動作名詞盡量與動作名詞平衡

Prep2012-Pack1-SC-062 VSC002507 hard
Narwhals can be called whales of the ice: in icy channels, ponds, and ice-shielded bays they seek sanctuary from killer whales, their chief predator, and their annual migrations following the seasonal rhythm of advancing and retreating ice.

A. their annual migrations following
C. their annual migrations follow

註解: 這題會在A/C糾結,注意killer whales, their chief predator, and their annual migrations並非是三個名詞的平衡,因為一般性名詞killer whales/predator和動作名詞migrations平衡概念不對等,their chief predator是killer whales的同位語,答案C是複合句,and後面接第二個主要子句,主詞是their annual migrations,動詞是follow。

OG12-119 New theories propose that catastrophic impacts of asteroids and comets may have caused reversals in the Earth’s magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart continents 80 million years ago, and great volcanic eruptions.

B. the splitting apart of continents
E. continents that were split apart

註解: the splitting是動作名詞,continents是一般性名詞,這裏是四個動作名詞的受詞平衡

Unlike/Like A, B +V….結構下,通常要看A/B有無可比性,通常都是一般性名詞,避免動作名詞,另外一般性名詞和動作名詞在此結構下通常可比性輸給一般性名詞對一般性名詞

OV2-32.
Like Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled against the unnatural complexity of human relations in modern society.

(A) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled
(B) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi’s rebellion was

註解: rebellion是動詞rebel 變化而來的抽象名詞

OV2-66.
Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property coverage, but if the insurance company is able to prove excessive loss due to owner negligence, it may decline to renew the policy.

(A) Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property coverage,
(D) Unlike the premiums for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property coverage are not affected by the frequency of claims,

註解: the frequency是be frequent變化而來的抽象名詞

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修辭機經準關係代名詞結構

有同學來信詢問先前po 出的修辭機經準關係代名詞結構:

as compared to的用法, 在此A2用最簡單的方式讓大家理解

PP 131.
A recent review of pay scales indicates that, on average,
CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers,
as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio in 1980.

這裏的as 和關係代名詞which一樣需要指代, 指代對象為the pay of blue-collar workers, 所以the pay和42 times their pay比, 但是差別為關係代名詞接子句

the pay of blue-collar workers, which is compared to 42 times their pay

準關係代名詞as接分詞片語

the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay

類似句型也可以參考以下這句:

PP 138.
Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is
believed to be the rate at which trees grow, as seen in the rings
visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

以上這句的as指代the rate at which trees grow的the rate, 作後面被動分詞seen的邏輯主語

希望以上講解有助於大家理解, 有錯也歡迎指正~

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A2 解析修辭中擾人的分詞構句 總結!

各位同學 大家好, A2看到有人在討論句尾Ving結構, 整理只有片段, 這些資料在我們訓練過的A2學員通常不會產生困擾, 通常產生困擾都是因為經驗不足或沒考過的同學, 整理出來的資料不夠齊備, 在此我們分享一下總結資料造福考生:

3. (24543-!-item-!-188;#058&001465) 句尾Ving 作副詞表達對前句延伸說明 Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

還原成子句: The United States dollar reached its highest level in six years against the German mark.

A2將reaching代入合適的邏輯主語後, 大家可以發現是the United States dollar , 而非受詞its rise, 後句是對前句作闡述說明

T-3-Q19. 句尾Ving 作副詞表達對前句因果關係 A Swiss government panel recommended that the country sell about half of its gold reserves, raising fears that other countries do the same and inundate the market.

還原成子句: The fact that the country sells about half of its gold reserves raises fears that other countries do the same and inundate the market

這裏各位同學可以發現raising邏輯主語並不是前句主詞the country, 而是selling gold reserves這件事, 前後句有表達因果關係

GWD-3-Q3: 句尾including 作形容詞修飾名詞 A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

還原成子句: Remedies (which) include establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits

同學在句尾Ving只需要注意including這個動詞, 只有這個動詞邏輯主語是抓 受詞, 因為正常表延伸說明是抓前句主詞, 表因果是抓前面整件事

OG28. 句尾Ved 作形容詞修飾受詞 Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of other wild and domestic resources.

還原成子句: their own elaborate society (which) was based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of other wild and domestic resources.

同學可以發現句尾Ved邏輯主語是抓前句受詞society, 並非是主詞the Mochica

至於OV例題, 我們在上課也很清楚用官方版解釋提醒同學邏輯主語問題

OV2-83 句尾Ving/句尾Ved In theory, international civil servants at the United Nations are prohibited from continuing to draw salaries from their own governments; in practice, however, some governments merely substitute living allowances for their employees’ paychecks, assigned by them to the United Nations.

(A) for their employees’ paychecks, assigned by them

(B) for the paychecks of their employees who have been assigned

(C) for the paychecks of their employees, having been assigned

OV Explanation for A: Assigned by them incorrectly and illogically modifies paychecks.

由此可知句尾Ved邏輯主語是抓受詞paychecks

OV Explanation for C: Having been assigned illogically modifies governments.

由此可知在標準英文中, 我們不講句尾主動分詞結構, 而是強調 “句尾Ving” 結構, 因為句尾Ving結構可能包含完成式的被動分詞 結構, 此時邏輯主語仍是抓主詞government, 所以我們可以了解: 句尾Ving不一定等於句尾主動分詞結構 句尾被動分詞結構不一定等於句尾Ved結構 希望這些對網友釐清句尾分詞結構邏輯主語有幫助!

 

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